Recent Publications

The Kalin Lab combines molecular, preclinical animal models, and human functional imaging studies to understand the neurobiological mechanisms underlying anxiety and mood disorders.


  • Aggarwal N, Tromp DPM, Blackford JU, Pine DS, Roseboom PH, Williams LE*, Kalin NH*. Sex-Specific Distributed White Matter Microarchitectural Alterations in Preadolescent Youths With Anxiety Disorders: A Mega-Analytic Study. Am J Psychiatry. 2024 Apr 1;181(4):299-309. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.20221048. Epub 2024 Mar 13. PMID: 38476042.  pdf                                                                                                                    *equal contributions
  • Cruz JR, Cochran A, McFarlin DR, Williams LE*, Kalin NK.* Heightened facial muscle reactivity in preadolescent girls with pathological anxiety. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research. 2024 Jan. DOI: 10.1002/mpr.2006. pdf                                                                                       *equal contributions
  • Haller SP, Linke JO, Grassie HL, Jones EL, Pagliaccio D, Harrewijn A, White LK, Naim R, Abend R, Mallidi A, Berman E, Lewis KM, Kircanski K, Fox NA, Silverman WK, Kalin NH, Bar-Haim Y, Brotman MA. Normalization of Fronto-Parietal Activation by Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Unmedicated Pediatric Patients With Anxiety Disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 2024 Jan 24:appiajp20220449. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.20220449. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 38263879. pdf
  • Tromp DPM, Fox AS, Riedel MK, Oler JA, Zhou X, Roseboom PH, Alexander AL, Kalin NH. Early life adversity in primates: Behavioral, endocrine, and neural effects. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2024 Jan 6;162:106953. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2023.106953. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 38232531. pdf


  • Mueller SAL, Oler JA, Roseboom PH, Aggarwal N, Kenwood MM, Riedel MK, Elam VR, Olsen ME, DiFilippo AH, Christian BT, Hu X, Galvan A, Boehm MA, Michaelides M, Kalin NH. DREADD-mediated amygdala activation is sufficient to induce anxiety-like responses in young nonhuman primates. Curr Res Neurobiol. 2023 Oct 5;5:100111. doi: 10.1016/j.crneur.2023.100111. PMID: 38020807; PMCID: PMC10663133. pdf
  • Kenwood MM, Souaiaia T, Kovner R, Fox AS, French DA, Oler JA, Roseboom PH, Riedel MK, Mueller SAL, Kalin NH. Gene expression in the primate orbitofrontal cortex related to anxious temperament. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2023 Dec 5;120(49):e2305775120. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2305775120. Epub 2023 Nov 27. PMID: 38011550; PMCID: PMC10710052. pdf
  • Aggarwal N, Oler JA, Tromp DPM, Roseboom PH, Riedel MK, Elam VR, Brotman MA, Kalin NH. A preliminary study of the effects of an antimuscarinic agent on anxious behaviors and white matter microarchitecture in nonhuman primates. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2023 Jul 29. doi: 10.1038/s41386-023-01686-1. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 37516801. pdf
  • Rowley PA, Paukner MJ, Eisenmenger LB, Field AS, Davidson RJ, Johnson SC, Asthana S, Chin NA, Prabhakaran V, Bendlin BB, Postle BR, Goldsmith HH, Carlsson CM, Brooks MA, Kalin NH, Williams LE, Rowley HA. Incidental Findings from 16,400 Brain MRI Examinations of Research Volunteers. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2023 Mar 16. doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A7821. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36927761. pdf
  • Olsen ME, Brodsky EK, Oler JA, Riedel MK, Mueller SAL, Vermilyea SC, Metzger JM, Tao Y, Brunner KG, Ahmed AS, Zhang SC, Emborg ME, Kalin NH, Block WF. Real-time trajectory guide tracking for intraoperative MRI-guided neurosurgery. Magn Reson Med. 2023 Feb;89(2):710-720. doi: 10.1002/mrm.29426. Epub 2022 Sep 21. PMID: 36128887. pdf


  • Harvey PD, Depp CA, Rizzo AA, Strauss GP, Spelber D, Carpenter LL, Kalin NH, Krystal JH, McDonald WM, Nemeroff CB, Rodriguez CI, Widge AS, Torous J. Technology and Mental Health: State of the Art for Assessment and Treatment. Am J Psychiatry. 2022 Dec 1;179(12):897-914. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.21121254. Epub 2022 Oct 6. PMID: 36200275. pdf
  • Kalin NH, Binder EB, Brady KT, Lewis DA, McDonald WM, Pine DS, Rodriguez CI, Roy MD. The American Journal of Psychiatry’s Efforts Toward Eliminating Racism, Social Injustice, Health Care Inequities, and Publication Biases. Am J Psychiatry. 2022 Sep;179(9):604-605. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.20220598. PMID: 36048489. pdf
  • Moody JF, Aggarwal N, Dean DC 3rd, Tromp DPM, Kecskemeti SR, Oler JA, Kalin NH, Alexander AL. Longitudinal assessment of early-life white matter development with quantitative relaxometry in nonhuman primates. Neuroimage. 2022 May 1;251:118989. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2022.118989. Epub 2022 Feb 10. PMID: 35151851; PMCID: PMC8940652. pdf
  • Aggarwal N, Williams LE, Tromp DPM, Pine DS, Kalin NH. A dynamic relation between whole-brain white matter microstructural integrity and anxiety symptoms in preadolescent females with pathological anxiety. Transl Psychiatry. 2022 Feb 8;12(1):57. doi: 10.1038/s41398-022-01827-y. PMID: 35136030; PMCID: PMC8825837. pdf


  • Kenwood MM, Kalin NH, Barbas H. The prefrontal cortex, pathological anxiety, and anxiety disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2022 Jan;47(1):260-275. doi: 10.1038/s41386-021-01109-z. Epub 2021 Aug 16. pdf
    • Erratum in: Neuropsychopharmacology. 2022 Feb 2;: PMID: 34400783; PMCID: PMC8617307. pdf
  • Roseboom PH, Mueller SAL, Oler JA, Fox AS, Riedel MK, Elam VR, Olsen ME, Gomez JL, Boehm MA, DiFilippo AH, Christian BT, Michaelides M, Kalin NH. Evidence in primates supporting the use of chemogenetics for the treatment of human refractory neuropsychiatric disorders. Mol Ther. 2021 Apr 23:S1525-0016(21)00209-4. doi: 10.1016/j.ymthe.2021.04.021. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33895327. pdf
  • Kovner R, Kalin NH. Transcriptional Profiling of Amygdala Neurons Implicates PKCδ in Primate Anxious Temperament. Chronic Stress (Thousand Oaks). 2021 Feb 11;5:2470547021989329. doi: 10.1177/2470547021989329. PMID: 33628986; PMCID: PMC7882745. pdf
  • Aggarwal N, Moody JF, Dean DC, Tromp DPM, Kecskemeti SR, Oler JA, Alexander AL, Kalin NH. Spatiotemporal dynamics of nonhuman primate white matter development during the first year of life. Neuroimage. 2021 May 1;231:117825. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.117825. Epub 2021 Feb 5. PMID: 33549752; PMCID: PMC8154685. pdf


  • Warren WC, Harris RA, Haukness M, Fiddes IT, Murali SC, Fernandes J, Dishuck PC, Storer JM, Raveendran M, Hillier LW, Porubsky D, Mao Y, Gordon D, Vollger MR, Lewis AP, Munson KM, DeVogelaere E, Armstrong J, Diekhans M, Walker JA, Tomlinson C, Graves-Lindsay TA, Kremitzki M, Salama SR, Audano PA, Escalona M, Maurer NW, Antonacci F, Mercuri L, Maggiolini FAM, Catacchio CR, Underwood JG, O’Connor DH, Sanders AD, Korbel JO, Ferguson B, Kubisch HM, Picker L, Kalin NH, Rosene D, Levine J, Abbott DH, Gray SB, Sanchez MM, Kovacs-Balint ZA, Kemnitz JW, Thomasy SM, Roberts JA, Kinnally EL, Capitanio JP, Skene JHP, Platt M, Cole SA, Green RE, Ventura M, Wiseman RW, Paten B, Batzer MA, Rogers J, Eichler EE. Sequence diversity analyses of an improved rhesus macaque genome enhance its biomedical utility. Science. 2020 Dec 18;370(6523):eabc6617. doi: 10.1126/science.abc6617. PMID: 33335035; PMCID: PMC7818670. pdf
  • Kenwood MM, Kalin NH. Nonhuman Primate Models to Explore Mechanisms Underlying Early-Life Temperamental Anxiety. Biol Psychiatry. 2021 Apr 1;89(7):659-671. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2020.08.028. Epub 2020 Sep 12. PMID: 33229035; PMCID: PMC7952470. pdf
  • Kovner R, Souaiaia T, Fox AS, French DA, Goss CE, Roseboom PH, Oler JA, Riedel MK, Fekete EM, Fudge JL, Knowles JA, Kalin NH. Transcriptional Profiling of Primate Central Nucleus of the Amygdala Neurons to Understand the Molecular Underpinnings of Early-Life Anxious Temperament. Biol Psychiatry. 2020 May 19:S0006-3223(20)31595-X. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2020.05.009. Online ahead of print. PMID: 32709417. pdf 


  • Kovner R, Oler JA, Kalin NH. Cortico-Limbic Interactions Mediate Adaptive and Maladaptive Responses Relevant to Psychopathology. Am J Psychiatry. 2019 Dec 1;176(12):987-999. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.19101064. PMID: 31787014 Free PMC article. Review. pdf
  • Tromp DPM, Fox AS, Oler JA, Alexander AL, Kalin NH. The Relationship Between the Uncinate Fasciculus and Anxious Temperament Is Evolutionarily Conserved and Sexually Dimorphic. Biol Psychiatry. 2019 Dec 15;86(12):890-898. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2019.07.022. Epub 2019 Jul 31. PMID: 31542153 pdf
  • Fox AS, Souaiaia T, Oler JA, Kovner R, Kim JMH, Nguyen J, French DA, Riedel MK, Fekete EM, Rabska MR, Olsen ME, Brodsky EK, Alexander AL, Block WF, Roseboom PH, Knowles JA, Kalin NH. Dorsal Amygdala Neurotrophin-3 Decreases Anxious Temperament in Primates. Biol Psychiatry. 2019 Dec 15;86(12):881-889. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2019.06.022. Epub 2019 Jul 2. PMID: 31422797 pdf
  • Galvan A, Raper J, Hu X, Paré JF, Bonaventura J, Richie CT, Michaelides M, Mueller SAL, Roseboom PH, Oler JA, Kalin NH, Hall RA, Smith Y. Ultrastructural localization of DREADDs in monkeys. Eur J Neurosci. 2019 Sep;50(5):2801-2813. doi: 10.1111/ejn.14429. Epub 2019 Jun 19. PMID: 31063250 pdf
  • Kenwood MM, Roseboom PH, Oler JA, Kalin NH. New Insights Into the Mechanisms of Ketamine’s Antidepressant Effects: Understanding the Role of VEGF in Mediating Plasticity Processes. Am J Psychiatry. 2019 May 1;176(5):333-335. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.19030282.PMID: 31039637 No abstract available.pdf
  • Kovner R, Fox AS, French DA, Roseboom PH, Oler JA, Fudge JL, Kalin NH. Somatostatin Gene and Protein Expression in the Non-human Primate Central Extended Amygdala:  Journal of Neuroscience.2018.12.035. 157-168. pdf
  • Tromp DPM, Williams LE, Fox AS, Oler JA, Roseboom PH, Rogers GM, Benson BE, Alexander AL, Pine DS, Kalin NH. Altered Uncinate Fasciculus Microstructure in Childhood Anxiety Disorders in Boys But Not Girls. Am J Psychiatry. 2019 Jan 18:appiajp201818040425. pdf


  • Widge AS, Bilge MT, Montana R, Chang W, Rodriguez CI, Deckersbach T, Carpenter LL, Kalin NH, Nemeroff CB. Electroencephalographic Biomarkers for Treatment Response Prediction in major Depressive Illness: A Meta-Analysis. Am J Psychiatry. 2018 Oct 3: appiajp201817121358.pdf
  • Dean DC, Planalp EM, Wooten W, et al. Association of Prenatal Maternal Depression and Anxiety Symptoms With Infant White Matter Microstructure. JAMA Pediatrics. 2018 Oct 1;172(10):973-981. pdf
  • Zeier Z, Carpenter LL, Kalin NH, Rodriguez CI, McDonald WM, Widge AS, Nemeroff CB.Clinical Implementation of Pharmacogenetic Decision Support Tools for Antidepressant Drug Prescribing. The American Journal of Psychiatry. 2018 Sep 1;175(9):873-886. pdf
  • Fox AS, Oler JA, Birn RM, Shackman AJ, Alexander AL, and Kalin NH. Functional Connectivity within the Primate Extended Amygdala Is Heritable and Associated with Early-Life Anxious Temperament. Journal of Neuroscience. 2018 Aug 29;38(35):7611-7621 pdf
  • Zhao G, Liu F, Oler JA, Meyerand ME, Kalin NH, and Birn RM. Bayesian convolutional neural network based MRI brain extraction on nonhuman primates. NeuroImage. 2018 Jul 15;175:32-44. pdf
  • Block TS, Kushner H, Kalin N, Nelson C, Belanoff J, Schatzberg A. Combined Analysis of Mifepristone for Psychotic Depression: Plasma Levels Associated With Clinical Response. Biological Psychiatry. July 1, 2018; 84:46–54 pdf
  • Kalin NH., M.D. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Binding Protein:Stress, Psychopathology, and AntidepressantTreatment Response. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2018 Mar 1;175(3):204-206 pdf


  • Alisch RS, Van Hulle C, Chopra P, et al. A multi-dimensional characterization of anxiety in monozygotic twin pairs reveals susceptibility loci in humans. Translational Psychiatry. Dec 2017;7(12):1282. doi:10.1038/s41398-017-0047-9. pdf
  • Block T, Petrides G, Kushner H, Kalin N, Belanoff J, Schatzberg A. Mifepristone Plasma Level and Glucocorticoid Receptor Antagonism Associated With Response in Patients With Psychotic Depression. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. Oct 2017;37(5):505-511. doi:10.1097/JCP.0000000000000744. pdf
  • Bogdan R, Salmeron BJ, Carey CE, et al. Imaging Genetics and Genomics in Psychiatry: A Critical Review of Progress and Potential. Biological psychiatry. Aug 2017;82(3):165-175. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2016.12.030. pdf
  • Kalin NH. Mechanisms Underlying the Early Risk to Develop Anxiety and Depression: A Translational Approach. European neuropsychopharmacology :The journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology. June 2017;27(6):543-553. doi:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2017.03.004. pdf
  • Oler JA, Tromp DPM, Fox AS, et al. Connectivity between the central nucleus of the amygdala and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the non-human primate: neuronal tract tracing and developmental neuroimaging studies. Brain structure & function. Jan 2017;222(1):21-39. doi:10.1007/s00429-016-1198-9. pdf


  • Kalin NH, Fox AS, Kovner R, et al. Overexpressing corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the primate amygdala increases anxious temperament and alters its neural circuit. Biological psychiatry. Sept 2016;80(5):345-355. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2016.01.010. pdf
  • Dantzer R, Kalin NH. The cortisol awakening response at it’s best. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2016 Jan;63:412-3. pdf

Selected Past Publications

  • Oler JA, Birn RM, Patriat R, Fox AS, Shelton SE, Burgy CA, Stodola DE, Essex MJ, Davidson RJ, Kalin NH. Evidence for coordinated functional activity within the extended amygdala of nonhuman and human primates. Neuroimage, 61(4): 1059-1066, 2012. pdf
  • Fox AS, Oler JA, Shelton SE, Nanda SA, Davidson RJ, Roseboom PH, Kalin NH. Central amygdala nucleus (Ce) gene expression linked to increased trait-like Ce metabolism and anxious temperament in young primates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 09(44):18108-13, 2012. pdf
  • Essex MJ, Klein MH, Slattery MJ, Goldsmith HH, Kalin NH. Early risk factors and developmental pathways to chronic inhibition and social anxiety disorder in adolescence. Am J Psychiatry. 2010 Jan; 167(1):40-6. pdf
  • Oler JA, Fox AS, Shleton SE, Rogers J, Dyer TD, Davidson RJ, Shelledy W, Oakes TR, Blangero J, Kalin NH. Amygdalar and hippocampal substrates of anxious temperament differ in their heritability. Nature. 2010 Aug 12; 466(7308):864-8. pdf